PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI SIMPLISIA, DAN KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL SELASIH (Ocimum basilicum L.) PADA BERBAGAI TARAF CEKAMAN KEKERINGAN DAN WAKTU PANEN

Gina Nuraini Buchory, Syaiful Anwar, Budi Adi Kristanto

Abstract


Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an aromatic plant that is known for its spice and medicinal benefits that valued mainly for its fresh and dry leaves (simplicia/crude drugs). This study aimed to evaluate growth, simplicia production, and total phenolic content of basil under different levels of drought stress and harvest time. The experiment was conducted at The Greenhouse of Plant Breeding and Physiology Laboratory Faculty of Animal Science and Agriculture Diponegoro University. The research was using a completely randomized design (RAL) consisting of two factors 3x3 with 3 replication. Drought stress treatments in field capacity included : K1 (100% FC), K2 (75% FC), and K3 (50% FC) as the first factor. Harvest time treatments included : W1 (5 Weeks After Planting), W2 (6 Weeks After Planting), and W3 (7 Weeks After Planting) as the second factor. Parameters evaluated were root volume, plant height, total leaf area, simplicia production, and total phenolic content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (p≤0,05%) were carried out to determine significant different between treatments and interactions. Results indicated that: (a) drought stress treatments significantly reduced growth and production of basil plant simplicia, but it did not provide a significant difference in the total phenolic content; (b) the harvest time treatment increased growth and production of basil plant simplicia, and decreased total phenolic content significantly; and (c) there were interactions between drought stress treatments and harvest time treatments.


Keywords


Basil; phenolic content; drought stress; simplicia; harvest time

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ai, N. S. dan P. Torey. 2013. Karakter morfologi akar sebagai indikator kekurangan air pada tanaman. Jurnal Bioslogos. 3 (1) : 31 – 39.

Abewoy, D., D. Belew. and Z. D. Zigene. 2018. Influence of harvesting age and genotype on growth parameters and herbage yield of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) at Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia.

Advances in Crop Science and Technology, 6 (6) : 1 – 9.

Alishah, H. M., R. Heidari, A. Hassani, and A. A. Dizaji. 2006. Effect of water stress on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Biological Sciences. 6 (4) : 763 – 767.

Aldarkazali, M., H. Z. Rihan, C. Carne, and M. P. Fuller. 2019. The growth and development of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and bush basil (Ocimum minimum) grown under three light regimes in a controlled environment. Jounal of Agronomy, 9 (743) : 1 – 14.

Busaifi. 2017. Korelasi tingkat naungan dan cekaman air terhadap variabel laju pertumbuhan relatif Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Agriprima Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. 1 (2) : 154 – 162.

Busaifi., R. 2013. Pengaruh tingkat naungan dan cekaman air terhadap laju pertumbuhan relatif tumbuhan Ageratum conzoides Linn. Agrosains. 3 (1) : 254 – 267.

Choudhary, N. L., R. K. Sairam and A. Tyagi. 2011. Expression of delta1- pyrroline-5 carboxylate synthetase gene during drought in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 42: 366-370.

Daramola, O. S., F. O. Olasantan, A. W. Salau, P. M. Olorunmaiye, and J. A. Adigun. 2018. Effect of time harvest on growth and herbage yield of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Nigerian Journal of Ecology. 17 (2) : 48 – 55.

Farooq, M., A. Wahid, N. Kobayashi, D. Fujita, and S. M. A. Basra. 2009. Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms, and management.

Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 29 (2009) : 185 – 212.

Febrianto, E. B., S. M. Tarigan, dan I. Azri. 2019. Evaluasi karakter agronomi kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) varietas DXP avros pada kondisi cekaman kekeringan di main nursery. Bernas Agricultural Research Journal. 15 (1) : 202 – 211.

Fitriyah, N. L., N. Azizah, dan E. Widaryanto. 2017. Analisis pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman selada air (Nasturtium officinale) pada tingkat pemberian air yang berbeda dan dua macam bahan tanam. Jurnal Produksi Tanaman. 5 (12) : 2008 – 2016.

Gomes, F. P., M. A. Olivia, M. S. Mielke, A. A. F. Almeida, and L. A. Aquino. 2010. Osmotic adjustment, proline accumulation, and cell membrane stability in leaves of Cocos nucifera submitted to drought stress. Scientia Horticulture. 126 (1) : 379 – 384.

Gusta, A. R. dan A. Kusumastuti. 2017. Upaya mengatasi cekaman kekeringan pada tanaman nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) dengan memanfaatkan kompos kiambang. Jurnal Agro Industro Perkebunan. 5(2) : 123 – 127.

Hardiana, R., Rudiyansyah, dan T. A Zaharah. 2012. Aktivitas antioksidan senyawa golongan fenol dari beberapa jenis tumbuhan family Malvaceae. Jurnal Kimia Khatulistiwa. 1 (1) : 8 – 13.

Hidayati, N., R. L. Hendrati, A. Triani, dan Sudjino. 2017. Pengaruh kekeringan terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum L.) dan johar (Cassia florida Vahl.) dari provenan yang berbeda. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan. 11 (2) : 99 – 111.

Husni, E., N. Suharti, A. P. T. Atma. 2018. Karakterisasi simplisia dan ekstrak daun pacar kuku (Lawsonia inermis Linn) serta penentuan kadar fenolat total dan uji aktivitas antioksidan. Jurnal Sains Farmasi dan Klinis. 5 (1) : 12 – 16.

Khan, M. M., M. A. Hanif, and A. S. Baraham. 2012. Variations in basil antioxidant contents in relation to deficit irrigation. Journal of Medicinala Plants Research, 6 (11) : 2220 – 2223.

Kristanto, B. A. 2016. Tanggapan Sorgum Manis (Sorghum bicolor (l.) Moench) terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan dan Pemupukan Silika.

Disertasi. Program Pasca Sarjana, Program Studi S3 Ilmu Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Krol, A., R. Amarowicz, and S. Weidner. 2014. Changes in the composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of grapevine roots and leaves (Vitis vinifera L.) under continuous of long-term drought stress. Acta Physiol Plant. 2014 (36) : 1491 – 1499.

Larasati, D. A. dan E. Apriliana. 2016. Efek potensial daun kemangi (Ocimum basilicum L.) sebagai pemanfaatan Hand Sanitizer. Jurnal Majority. 5 (5) : 124 – 130.

Lestari, E. G. 2006. Mekanisme Toleransi dan Metode Seleksi Tumbuhan yang Tahan terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan. Berita Biologi. 8 (3) : 215 – 222.

Manurung, H., W. Kustiawan, I. W. Kusuma, dan Marjenah. 2019. Pengaruh cekaman kekeringan terhadap pertumbuhan dan kadar flavonoid total tumbuhan tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack). Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia. 10 (1) : 55 – 62.

Nasr, A. H., M. Zare, O. Alizadeh and N. M. Naderi. 2013. Improving effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on sorghum bicolor under four levels of drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8 (43): 5347-5353.

Neto C. F. O., R. S. Okumura, I. J. M. Viégas, H. E. O. Conceição, L.E. F. Monfort, R. T. L. da Silva, J. A. M. Siqueira, L.C. de Souza, R. C. L. da Costa, and D. C. Mariano. 2014. Effect of water stress on yield components of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Journal Food, Agriculture and Environment. 12 (3&4): 223-228

Nezhadahmadi, A,. Z. H. Prodhan, and G. Faruq. 2013. Drought Tolerance in Wheat. The Scientific World Journal. ArticleID 610721, 12pp.

Nurmi, K. V. Ossipov, E. Haukioja, and K. Philaja. 1996. Variation of total phenolic content and individual low molecular weight phenolics in foliage of mountain birch trees (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). Journal of Chemical Ecology. 22 (11) : 2023 – 2040.

Obidiegwu, J. E., G. J. Bryan, H. G. Jones, and A. Prashar. 2015. Coping with drought: stress and adaptive responses in potato and perspective for improvement. Frontiers in Plant Science. 6 (1) : 1 – 23.

Oliveira, R. S. V., L. C. Salomao, H. S. Morgado, C. M. Sousa, and H. F.E. Oliveira. 2020. Growth and production of basil under different luminosity and water replacement levels. Horticultura Brasileira. 38 (1) : 324 – 328.

Pandey, A. K. dan Savita. 2017. Harvesting and post-harvest processing of medicinal plants: Problems and prospects. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 6 (12) : 229 – 235.

Pavlovic, J., S. Mitic, M. Mitic, G. Kocic, A. Pavlovic, and S. Tosic. 2019. Variation in the phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity in different parts of hawthorn (Crategus pentagyna Willd.) during harvest periods. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 69 (4) : 367 – 378.

Rahman, K. and. Hossain. 2011. Chemical composition of different extracts of Ocimum basilicum Leaves. Journal of Scientific Research. 3 (1) : 197 – 206.

Ramesh, B. and Satakopan. 2010. In vitro antioxidant activities of Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research. 10 (1) : 2145.

Sahitya, U. L., M. S. R. Krishna, R. S. Deepthi, G. S. Prasad, and D. P. Kasim. 2018. Seed antioxidants interplay with drought stress tolerance indices in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings. BioMed Research International. 2018 (1) : 1 – 15.

Silva. M. M., J. L. Jifon., C. M. dos Santos., C. J. Jadoski., and J. A. G da Silva. 2013. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 56 (5): 735-748.

Simanjuntak, J., C. Hanum, dan D. S. Hanafiah. 2015. Pertumbuhan dan produksi dua vareitas kedelai pada cekaman kekeringan. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi. 3 (3) : 915 – 922.

Sirousmehr, A., J. Arbabi, and M. R. Asgharipour. 2014. Effect of drought stress levels and organic manures on yield, essential oil content and some morphological characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Advances in Environmental Biology. 8 (4) : 880 – 885.

Trisilawati, O. dan J. Pitono. 2012. Pengaruh cekaman defisit air terhadap pembentukan bahan aktif pada purwoceng. Buletin Littro. 23 (1) : 34 – 47.

Uddin, S., S. Parvin and M. A. Awal. 2013. Morpho-physiological aspects of mungbean (vigna radiata l.) in response to water stress. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR). 3 (2): 137-148.

Utami, M., Y. Widiawati, dan H. . Hidayah. 2013. Keragaman dan pemanfaatan simplisia nabati yang diperdagangkan di Purwokerto. Jurnal Biosfera. 1 (1) : 1 – 10.

Utami, J. L., B. A. Kristanto, dan Karno. 2020. Aplikasi silika dan penerapan cekaman kekeringan terkendali dalam upaya peningkatan produksi dan mutu simplisia binahong (Anredera cordifolia). Jurnal Agro Complex. 4 (1) : 69 – 78.

Utami, M. R., E. Prihastanti, dan S. W. A. Suedy. 2016. Pengaru hirisan rimpang terhadap berat kering dan performa simplisia lempuyang wangi (Zingiber aromaticum Val.) setelah pengeringan. Buletin Anatomi dan Fisiologi. 1 (1) :1 – 5.

Wahyuni, R., Guswandi, dan H. RIvai. 2014. Pengaruh cara pengeringan dengan oven, kering angin dan cahaya matahari langsung terhadap mutu simplisia herba sambiloto. Jurnal Farmasi Higea. 6 (2) : 126 – 132.

Widoretno, W. dan L. Winarsih. 2010. Pengaruh stress kekeringan pada fase vegetatif terhadap kandungan prolin, gula total terlarut pada beberapa genotip kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Hayati. 22 (1) : 1 – 7.

Zulhilmi, Suwirmen, dan N. W. Surya. 2012. Pertumbuhan dan uji kualitatif kandungan metabolit sekunder kalus gating (Spilanther acmella Murr.) dengan penambahan PEG untuk menginduksi cekaman kekeringan. Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas. 1 (1) : 1 – 8.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33096/agrotek.v5i2.182

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Gina Nuraini Buchory, Syaiful Anwar, Budi Adi Kristanto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

___________________________________________________________
AGROTEK: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Pertanian
ISSN 2581-3021
Published by Program Studi Agroteknologi Fakultas Ilmu Pertanian UMI

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0